Exemptions & Immunities

Congress and the courts have recognized a number of exemptions and immunities from the antitrust laws. These include:

the Noerr-Pennington Doctrine, which exempts lobbying and other forms of petitioning the government from antitrust scrutiny;

the Antitrust-State-Action Doctrine, which exempts conduct that is authorized and supervised by governmental officials from antitrust scrutiny;

the Labor Exemption, which exempts labor unions and certain aspects of labor/management agreements from antitrust scrutiny;